帖子主题: 美国刑事诉讼法的“米兰达规则”---你有权保持沉默……  

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发表于:Mon Nov 04 08:36:10 CST 2013
你有权保持沉默的由来在警匪罪案片的美剧或者电影中,你常常可以听到“你有权保持沉默,但你所说……”有时在香港电影或者港剧中也能听到这样的对白,让这段话的由来是什么呢?
You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to consult an lawyer. If you cannot afford an lawyer, one will be provided for you. Do you understand?
你有权保持沉默,你所说的一切都将作为承堂证供。你有权请一个律师。如果你付不起律师费,我们能免费指派一名律师给你。清楚了么?
其实还有一个更冗长的版本:
You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Do you understand?
Anything you do say may be used against you in a court of law. Do you understand?
You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. Do you understand? If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning if you wish. Do you understand?
If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present, you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney. Do you understand?
Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present?
这么长,说完别说观众,罪犯也睡着啦~~~那么这段话有什么讲究来历呢?
这段宣告,称为「米兰达原则」(Miranda Warning),又称米兰达警语。这个警语的名字由来,要回溯到1966年的「米兰达案」。1963年,恩尼斯托·米兰达(Ernesto Miranda)因为绑架、性侵罪名被捕。在没有告知宪法赋予他应有的权利的情况下,米兰达坦承犯行。在法庭审判时,检方也只以米兰达的自白作为证据。此案最后由美国联邦最高法院认定米兰达并不了解他有「不证己罪」的权利,而且在接受审讯过程中遭受威胁恫吓,因此推翻了原有的判决。米兰达后来因为有新人证与事证出现,而重新受审,最后入狱7年。不过,各国对应于米兰达原则的权利宣告也有不同的情形,例如在英国或韦尔斯地区的版本则是:
You do not have to say anything, but it may harm your defense if you do not mention, when questioned, something which you later rely on in court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence.真实生活也许并不像电影中那样,但是了解米兰达原则还是非常重要,应得的权利,不能轻言放弃!
 

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发表于:2014-11-18 10:04:37
You have the right to speak to an attorney,and to have an attorney present during any questioning.If you cannot afford alawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense.
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美国刑事诉讼法的“米兰达规则”---你有权保持沉默……


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