帖子主题: 法律翻译之状语从句  

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发表于:Thu Dec 22 15:59:47 CST 2011
  由于法律语言逻辑性很强,所以作者在写法律语言时一般都表现处比较明显的逻辑关系。而逻辑关系比较常见的表现方式时状语从句。英语中的状语从句一般包括条件状语从句、转折状语从句、时间状语从句、因果状语从句等。在翻译这几种状语从句时,可以根据它们的逻辑关系和中文表达习惯来进行翻译。在表达中文译文时,可以用中文中所对应的一些关系词,如因为…所以…,如果…则…,尽管…但是…,在…。时…,在…之前或之后…,但是等。此外,在对这几种状语从句进行翻译时,可对译文的语序进行适当调整,当然有时也不需要调整。
  1、The valuation determined by the Independent Appraiser shall be the valuation adopted by the Parties for purposes of this provision save that where the valuation is a State-owned asset valuation required by Applicable Laws, the Parties may agree an adjustment to such valuation where and to the extent permitted under Applicable Laws.
  参考译文:在本条中,由独立评估师确定的价值为双方认定的合营公司价值。但如果相关法律就国有资产的保全另有规定,双方可同意对上述评估价值在相关法律允许的范围内进行调整。
  解释:原文中的“where the valuation is a State-owned asset valuation required by Applicable Laws”状语从句,在译文中就按照中文的表达习惯和逻辑关系被翻译成了“如果相关法律就国有资产的保全另有规定”。其中“save that”的本意是“除了…之外”,但根据中文的表达习惯和逻辑关系,在译文中被翻译成了“但是”。整个句子被翻译成两个句子,两个句子之间的关系是一种转折关系。这样,译文既表达了作者的原意,又达到了译文必须通顺大的目的。
  2、Notwithstanding clauses (a) and (b) of this Article 5.6 above, the Assigning Party may transfer all or part of its amount of the registered capital of the Company to an Affiliate (the “Affiliate Assignee”) of the Assigning Party on the following conditions:
  参考译文:尽管有上述5.6 条(a)、(b)款的规定,转让方可将持有的合营公司注册资本份额部分或全部按下列条款转让给其某一关联机构(“关联受让方”):
  解释:原文中的“Notwithstanding clauses (a) and (b) of this Article 5.6 above”尽管只是一个短语,但根据上下文的意思和逻辑关系以及中文的表达习惯,在译文中它还是被翻译成了一种让步状语从句。
  3、the Assigning Party shall acknowledge and agree that to the extent that the Affiliate Assignee fails to perform any obligation hereunder, the Assigning Party is not released from, and remains jointly and severally liable with the Affiliate Assignee for, the full performance of the provisions of this Contract and any damages for the breach thereof.
  参考译文:转让方应承诺如果关联受让方未能履行本合同项下的义务,转让方并不因此解除该义务,仍对本合同条款的全部履行和任何违约所致的损失与关联受让方承担连带责任。
  解释:在原文中,“to the extent that”的原意是指“在…范围内”,但在译文中,译者按照上下文意思和前后文的逻辑关系,将之翻译为“如果…。,则…”。
  4、The Parties acknowledge that if the Company achieves the operations, revenue and earnings targets anticipated by the Parties, one or more increases in the registered capital of the Company will be required to support the expansion of the Company's business.
  参考译文:如果双方一致认为要使合营公司达到双方预期的经营、收入和利润目标,合营公司需要进行一次或多次增资以适应合营公司业务的发展。
  解释:原文的宾语从句是一个条件状语从句。译者在对其进行翻译时,按照原文语序将其翻译为一个条件状语从句。
  5、In the event that the Company‘s operations are reduced substantially from the scale of operation originally anticipated by the Parties, or the Company experiences substantial and continuing losses resulting in negative retained earnings not anticipated by the Parties in the agreed Business Plan, or in any other circumstance permitted under Applicable Laws or agreed by the Parties, the Parties may agree to reduce the registered capital of the Company on a pro rata basis.
  参考译文:如果合营公司的经营规模比双方原来预期的规模有大幅度缩减,或合营公司持续遭受严重亏损,导致在双方商定的业务计划中所未预期的盈余保留负数,或在任何相关法律允许或双方一致同意的情况下,则双方可以协议按原有出资比例减资。
  解释:在英文法律英语中,if、in the event that、in the case that、where等词一般来说都表示一种条件关系。在翻译这种条件关系的句子时,一般都将之翻译为条件关系状语从句。在该句中,译者就将之翻译为以“如果…则…”为关系词的条件状语从句。
  6、The Chairman, following consultation with the Vice Chairman, shall decide on the timing and location of such interim Board meeting, provided that such interim Board meeting shall be held not less than [fifteen (15)] days and not more than [forty-five (45)] days following delivery of such request.
  参考译文:董事长经与副董事长协商后,应确定此次临时董事会会议的时间和地点,但是举行该临时董事会会议的时间必须在提议提交后十五日到四十五日之间。
  解释:“provided that”或“providing that”等词在法律语言中是一个常见的用词,其意思是“但是”、“条件”等。在翻译含有这种词的法律句子时,可以将翻译为一种转折状语从句。在本句中,译者就将其翻译为“但是”,将原文翻译成为一种转折性状语从句。
  7、The fees of the expert shall be paid by [the Company] [the Parties pro rata to their respective interests in the registered capital of the Company unless the expert determines that the conduct of one Party in relation to the matter in question is so egregious that it alone should pay the fees of the expert].
  参考译文:专家的费用应由[合营公司]或[双方按其在公司注册资本中的比例按比例]分担[除非由于一方的行为与该待决事项有非同寻常的紧密联系,专家决定应由该方单独承担专家费用].
  解释:“unless”一词的含义是“除非…否则…。”,译者在翻译这种状语从句时,可以按照原意将其翻译成为一种转折性状语从句。
  8、Given the requirement that all transfers of registered capital must be approved by the original examination and approval authority, and because such original examination and approval authority will require signed consents, waivers of pre-emptive rights and unanimous board resolutions, it is very difficult to achieve and put into effect a deemed consent to any transfer as provided in this Article 5.6(b)。
  参考译文:假如存在一项关于注册资本的所有转让均必须经过原审批机关批准的规定,而且因为该原审批机关要求公司提供经过签署的同意书、优先权放弃书和经过一致通过的董事会决议,则按照的5.6(b)的规定,对任何此等转让的假定同意就很难实现和生效。
  解释:原文中,because所引导的从句是一个原因状语从句,在译文中译者也将其翻译为原因状语从句。当然在原文中,这个原因状语从句是套在“Given”这个词所引导的条件状语从句中的,所以在译文中,“because”引导的原因从句还是在“假如”引导的条件状语从句中。
  9、As a general principle, the Chinese name of a joint venture should not begin with Chinese characters denoting “China”, “State” or “international”, and the English name of the joint venture typically also cannot include such designations either since the English name (although not subject to approval and registration) usually is translated literally in accordance with the Chinese characters.
  参考译文:作为一般原则,合营企业的中文名称不得以“中国”、“国家”或“国际”等中文词语开头,其英文名称一般也不得含有此等词语,因为英文名(虽然无需批准)称通常是按照中文名称逐字翻译的。
  解释:在原文中,有两个引导词,即“since”和“although”。这两个词分别形成了一个原因状语从句和让步状语从句。同时,由于两个从句和两个主句的联结关系都不强,所以译者在翻译时都不它们放在了主句的后面。
  10、If the respective managers of the Parties fail to resolve the Deadlock Matter within [five (5)] Business Days after the Deadlock Matter is referred to them under Article 8.4(a), the Parties shall, immediately upon the expiry of such [five (5)]-Business Day period, refer the Deadlock Matter to the Group Managing Director of Party B and the equivalent officer of Party A for their resolution.
  参考译文:如果双方各自的高级管理人员未能在董事会投票僵持事项按第8.4(a)条提交给他们后[五(5)]个工作日内解决该投票僵局,双方应在上述[五(5)]个工作日期限届满时,立即将该投票僵持事项提交给乙方的相关事业部总裁及相当的甲方官员予以解决。
  解释:“after”或“before”等词引导的时间状语从句,在译文中一般都可以翻译成时间状语短语。在本句中,译者就将“after”引导的时间状语从句翻译成一个时间状语短语。
  11、When any dispute occurs and is the subject of friendly consultations or arbitration, the Parties shall continue to exercise their remaining respective rights and fulfil their remaining respective obligations under this Contract, except in respect of those matters under dispute.
  参考译文:在发生争议,且该争议需要友好协商或仲裁时,各方当事人应当继续履行各自在本合同项下的各项权利和义务,但争议所涉及的各项事项除外。
  解释:在原文中,“when”引导的时间状语从句,在译文中被译者翻译为时间短语状语。
 
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发表于:2012-03-17 10:13:05

法律语言逻辑性很强


 
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发表于:2013-05-29 16:00:45
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发表于:2013-09-09 02:10:57
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